Nov 062015

This is a small setup instruction for BGP peering test, followed by a small group of test scenarios.

I did a lot of job interviews this year. Some for QA, some for Network Administrator, etc. Lately, for a job interview, I was asked to do some routing configuration. As a home-work. So, I hope by sharing this, I can help you get the basics of this simple routing setup.

In the past, when I was working as an ISP network administrator in Telecable SA, I had to set a BGP session to my main ISP. For this I used Zebra.

Zebra was discontinued in 2005, but a brave group of open source enthusiast grabbed the idea and continued working. Since then the product grew into a better routing software supporting even more protocols. They called it Quagga.  The list of supported protocols now goes as:

  • BGP
  • OSPF
  • OSPFv6
  • ISIS
  • RIP
  • RIPNG (RIPv6)

and of course

  • Zebra

So this is a small tutorial, how to set a BGP session between 2 virtual devices running Quagga. For this tutorial, I avoided my preferred distribution, because It is a bit more complicated there. I also used virtual appliances, because I don’t have the spare hardware. Named the 2 routers BCN and TKY (Barcelona and Tokyo).

So, there goes…

  • First, we need a VirtualBox installation (get it from here).
  • Then we need an easy to maintain and install Linux (Like Ubuntu LTS 14.04.3 from here)
  • Create a new virtual box with default values, just increase memory to 1024.
  • Add 2 more network adapters attached to “Internal Network”. Don’t alter the first network adapter for now. Leave as is.
  • Set Adapter 2 name to “BCN2TKY” and Adapter 3 to “CustomersTKY
  • Mount the downloaded image as a DVD ROM.
  • Install Ubuntu into the box.
  • Start Gnome Terminal and execute the following:

  • Edit /etc/network/interfaces with your favorite editor. I prefer Midnight commander (sudo apt-get install mc). Ubuntu has bad behavior with virtual network adapters and tends to disable and remove IP addresses if you are not sending traffic, so we need to force it not to touch them by issuing static IP addresses. For each interface we are going to use, we need a static entry like this:

(you have to be root. e.g. sudo mcedit /etc/network/interfaces)

  • Restart the network manager by issuing:

  • Alter the /etc/quagga/daemons file to enable Zebra and BGP daemon. Just replace “no” with “yes”. Disable all else:

  • In /etc/quagga/ – Touch (create) the files bgpd.conf and zebra.conf.

  • Change ownership of all files in /etc/quagga/* to be quagga:quagga (both user and group).

  • Restart Quagga, and it will run the zebra and bgpd

  • Stop the virtual appliance.

  • Wait a bit and close the window. Confirm you want to power it down.
  • Go to VirtualBox and clone the image we just created.
  • Use hard clone, check “generate new mac address”.
  • Use name “BCN” for the cloned virtual machine.
  • Wait for the clone to complete.
  • Go to the Network adapters and alter the 3-rd one to point to “CustomersBCN”. We need this for tests later.
  • Boot the machine.
  • Alter the entries in /etc/network/interfaces :

  • We are almost set with the setup. Alternatively, you can clone at least 2 (or more) machines with names “BCN-Customers” and “TKY-Customers” and set their second network adapters to “Internal” with names “CustomersBCN” and “CustomersTKY” respectively. We are going to use them later for testing of the BGP peering.
  • Set their adapters in the corresponding group and set the IP address in /etc/network/interfaces. E.g:



You don’t need Quagga installed there, so you can remove the package after cloning or just disable its run-script by issuing

In the end, you need something like this:

BGP diagram skeleton

BGP diagram skeleton

This is the skeleton of our test-bed. We are going to set it up in a minute.

Quagga’s daemons of interest listen to the following ports: 2601 for Zebra and 2605 for BGP. You can access their CLI like this:

(alternatively telnet localhost 2601)

(alternatively telnet localhost 2605)

Here is a basic config with 2 AS:



You can enter this configuration via CLI (command line interface) or just write it in the files zebra.conf and bgpd.conf and restart Quagga to apply them like this:

The detailed diagram looks like this:

BGP Diagram, detailed

BGP Diagram, detailed


Test 1: Simple ping test between TKY-Client and BCN-Client:

Test 2: Simple traceroute between BCN-Client and TKY-Client:

Test 3: Copy a small file via ssh:

Test 4: Copy large file via ssh:

Test 5: Sniff control plane traffic between BCN and TKY:

Have a look at this in WireShark:

BGP keepalives in Wireshark

BGP keepalives in Wireshark

Test 6: Learned from BGP routes are inserted into kernel:

Additional tests:

  • Traffic loss during BGP route update.
  • Latency and loss using Y.1731 and/or RFC2544.
  • Line capacity.

[Unfortunately, for those you need a traffic generator and more sophisticated test equipment]

  • Both routers in one AS. Just a small change in configuration. Then, repeat all tests above.

Pleasant hacking and I hope this article helped you.

Oct 152015

Was bored and decided to play some hack and slash RPG. Except some annoying bugs and the lousy translation, the game turned out quite addictive until end-game. Then it is repetitive and boring, unless you pay to buy gems.

The worst two bugs as of the moment of writing this article are:

  • While scrolling right when moving, sometimes the controls freeze and you can’t attack and use skills but your enemies can. You often get stun by hellknights. Quite annoying.
  • Dryad bosses and the final boss tend to go to the edge of the map and force you to follow them. It happens a Dryad walking left until the beginning of the map.

Funded players (those who pay real money to buy gems) will have it easier and faster. You can buy some really cool things with gems. Fast HP regeneration, additional mercenary slots in early game, better drop rate, faster skill recharge. Fortunatelly – you can still end the game without gems. It’s just not that easy.

Be sure to play 12 days in a row, so you get the 2 good mercenaries and some spare money, potions, gems and scrolls:

Play 12 days in a row!

Play 12 days in a row!

Passive skills are valid for the whole account, so you can max them up by playing another game slot and buy some of them there. In the beginning, the game is generous on gems.

Delete the second account and start another game. Repeat until you have all passive skills. If you do this, you can probably buy any of the premium mercenaries, so they help you in the end-game fight.

So, let’s start. You get few things from the intro-tutorial:

  1. Your father “signor” Glenelg rushes to die to protect the realm.
  2. The realm is attacked by a demon named Beld.
  3. You are named Arthur.
  4. You rush to help your father.
  5. You have the same skills as your father.
  6. You can’t play different class than sword fighter.
Area 1: Imperial city.

Area 1: Imperial city.

Area 1: Imperial city.

Nothing much to do here. Follow tutorial, save Lydia and upgrade her. She is useful healer. Until you get Irina.
Beat the (@#$*) out of the first bosses and take them as a pets.
Get all possible stars from the area. Rewards are not very good but will sell for money and you need them quite a lot.
If you are funded – Get 15 stars and enter the dungeon. Best area items are there.
If you are not funded – keep the gems for later. You need a lot of spare gems to get all good passive bonuses.

DO NOT enter dungeon. Rewards are useless and you will soon get better stuff.

Get all bosses down and march to …

Area 2: Alcala land.

Area 2: Alcala land.

Area 2: Alcala land.

Replace your monster with the obsessed knight Cougar. He is way better tank but costs a lot more to upgrade.
Get Irina. She is weaker healer than Lydia but she buffs defense and her main attack is vampiric.
Up to you to decide whom you will use as a main healer. Irina will keep healing you every 10-12 seconds. Even off-battle. Quite useful when you want to max your health before boss-fights.
Work your main char to level 20 and get 3 slots for formation. Lot easier to complete the area after this.
If you are not funded – Ignore the dungeon. Keep the gems for later.

Area 3: Crimson area.

Area 3: Crimson area.

Area 3: Crimson area.

This is where the easy romantic part ends.
Play for 5 days in a row to get the demon knight mercenary Breeze as reward. He is way better DD than you and has shockwave.
If you listened to my advice to keep all gems and if you are not funded, you can probably afford a passive skill by now. Get the party expansion x 2.
Now you can have 2 healers and 3 tanks. Plus additional ranged damage dealer on the back. Seth is very weak but does good damage. You can get Seth the timid mini-dragon from map 3-4.
Kill the last boss Gu-Vano 5 times. Stella sword is not bad at all. If you are lucky, he will drop a 4-star Muramasa which is a bit worse than 4-star Stella and also Altai stone with +15% damage.
The only really hard thing in this area is to get 3-stars result on map 3-7. Every other group comes from behind and you have to get back to kill them or your healers die. You need timing less than 2:40 minutes. Take your time. Not necessary, no reward but you need money for upgrades after all.

Area 4: Frozen land.

Area 4: Frozen land.

Area 4: Frozen land.

Arm with patience on this map.
Level up everyone you can.
Level up your items.
Last map needs 15000 party power and you will barely make it there with just 15k.
If you have been listening so far about no gem spending on dungeons – you probably collected more gems. Get rapid skill cooldown. You will use a lot of skills.
Now the fun part :)
You have to kill Deal-Murdo 6 times for the reward of 4-star “Leonhreat”. Best armor you can find if you are not funded. He also drops a 3-star Casely-ann sword and 2-star “Lord dangler” shield. Be sure to check them out if you don’t have better. If you are not funded – you probably don’t. Keep killing him until 2-star “Lord stone” amulet drops. It has 15% chance of instant skill recovery. Very useful and goes to 21% for the first few cheaper item upgrades. Don’t overpay you will get the 4-star version in the last area. No need to over-upgrade any item until you are in the last map 5-8.

Area 5: Lava valley.

Area 5: Lava valley.

Area 5: Lava valley.

This place is deadly. Literally.

If you are not funded:

  • Get back to lower levels and blaze 10000 kills for 20 gems.
  • Collect some more from daily rewards and buy HP regeneration. Very useful passive skill. Even with all your mercenaries dead – you still have a chance to complete map or duel someone.
  • Grind yourself to level 50 for some more gems and buy “Drap” rate increase (if you can collect that many gems).

Funded or not, Level up everyone and everything. Level 20 party goes down from one slash of the first mobs.

  • Make Gu-vano raids. 3 minutes. 4-5 mini bosses. 2k+ gold. 40 kills. Some items.
  • Map 3-8. 4 runs are worth 10k gold.
  • If you feel strong enough (20000+ party power), grind map 5-2. 3 bosses. ~3500 gold per run. Some potions and some very useless items will drop on each run. Experience is good though. Sell the items and repeat.
  • Later, if bored – grind 5-5. Good drop rate from the barrels.
  • And of course 5-8 which is full of mini-bosses all over the place.

In all cases, you can’t end the game with less than 25000 party power, so you need to level up items, skills and party members quite a lot.
If you are not funded – this involves much grinding for money.

You can try to get premium mercenaries. The authors decided to raise the price of everything, but if you can spend the gems (or listened to my advice to play another char and get the passive skills there):

  1. The boar king is an excellent tank. Was 30 gems, now 80.
  2. The dryad is weak but can mass attack and ensnare. Was 40 gems, now 100.
  3. And the golem, who can mass attack and tank well. Was 50 gems, now 120.

My personal choice is the boar. Cheap and sturdy.
And option 2 of course – spend the gems for the last map dungeon. Best items drop there. 21 gems per entry. Beld drops them too, but if you are in a hurry 😉 …

Last fight with Beld/Bled

Last fight with Beld/Bled

Last fight.

Many copies of all bosses and mini bosses.
Beld is weakling.
Don`t know why you have to be with 25000 party power to enter last map.
He only has one special attack which will probably wipe your party but you will stand (if you have all passives).
By now Arthur is probably level 60, with almost 100k hitpoints. Not really a hard solo fight.
My first attempt was with 25008 party power and I only had to gulp 3 potions to finish him.
Cutscene with your father fading away.

The end.

Brave Fighter End Game

Brave Fighter End Game

Now get back and kill him 7 more times for the achievement and the 4-star “Lord stone”. 30% chance of instant skill recovery. 60% when max-upgraded. Beats the premium passive skill, but still good to have both. With this Lord Stone upgraded to level 10 you can spam-kill everything.
You may also try to make 24 stars on area 5 (quite useless, no hidden achievement). You need to kill Beld in less than 4:10 minutes for this.

Game already ended. But…

End-game fight with Beld’s kill will always count as a newly finished map. With bonus in the end. You can use this to make 2 additional gems every day. This is probably a bug which will be fixed by the game developers sooner or later, so use it to unlock everything else while it is still there. 2 stars per day + some stars every other day, just for logging in.

You can also buy a 4-star Casely Ann for 22000 gold as spoils of the last battle. So, be sure to have the money.
The only item you can’t find with unfunded game is the 4-star “Lord dangler”. No-one drops it and nowhere to buy it. Probably only accessible as a part of the premium full armor set, but I decided not to pay EUR 20 for the necessary gems 😉

Have fun!

Dec 022014
This is where the Ancient Armor is hidden

This is where the Ancient Armor is hidden

Stone of life Ex (S.O.L. Ex) is an Android RPG game similar to Aurum Blade. Actually the PREQUEL of the Aurum Blade, where the Villain is still a child seeking the stone of life.

This is a dungeon map walkthrough in case you missed some area or can’t find a dungeon.

I have included the secret location of the Ancient armor (see the picture) in case you can’t find one or the shop does not sell it.

Also in the picture, you will see the best ingame spells.

No need to invest (at all) in any of the other spells. They are useless or WAY too slow to cast in bad situations.

So don’t hesitate but download the game from Android Market and start slashing that weapon.


I did 😉

Package 1

  • Treasure of grave robbers – Deep place of Canis forest.
  • Traces of the spirit of ruins – Canis forest.
  • Investigation of spirit dungeon – Outskirts of Canis forest.
  • Destroy the cursed sword – South of Ravenwood.
  • Record of the spirits – South of Ravenwood.
  • Clear den of slaver – Ravenwood.
  • Clear assassin’s guild – North of Ravenwood.
  • Clear laboratory of Necrosis – East of Ravenwood.
  • Alchemists’s plan – Northeast of Ravenwood.
  • Secret records – Southeast of Ravenwood.
  • Testing ground of weapons – North of Ravenwood.
  • Security of Herbhill – West of Ravenwood.
  • Clear abandoned mansion – West of Ravenwood.

Package 2

  • Moving sword – East of Greystone.
  • Secret weapon of Necrosis – Southeast of Greystone.
  • Find the wizard’s treasure – Northeast of Greystone.
  • Kill wyvern demon – Outskirts of Greystone.
  • The devil’s labyrinth – Trail of Retineo.
  • Ancient undead – East of Retineo.
  • Defend treasure – Retineo Mountains.
  • Siren’s cave – Tunnel of Greystone.
  • Clear top floor of Ice tower – East of ancient abbey.
  • Haunted mansion – West of Ancient Abbey.
  • Defend the cursed pendant – Outskirts of Ancient Abbey.
  • Archives of Monastery – Ancient Abbey.
  • Kill Ifrit – Northeast of Ancient Abbey.
  • Kill Deathknight – Northwest of Ancient Abbey.
  • Holy land in the golem’s cave – South of Retineo.
Stone of life Dungeons (South)

Stone of life Dungeons (South)

Package 3

  • Defend a guardian stone – Entrance of Halten mountains.
  • Kill eyes of fear – South of Halten mountains.
  • Barbarians in old mine – Halten mountains.
  • Leader of the Yeti – West of Halten mountains.
  • Destroy altar of Necrosis – Signo valley.
  • Kill priest Marcus – North of Signo valley.
  • Kill executive 0f Necrosis – South of Signo valley.
  • Information of Betrayer – East of Signo valley.
  • Thieves hideout – North of Catacomb.
  • Rebel’s secret warehouse – Northern tunnel of Catacomb.
  • Secret summon – East of Halten mountains.
  • Conspiracy of smuggler – Southern tunnel of Catacomb.
  • Emperor of Catacomb – Catacomb.
  • The great merchant’s treasure – South of Oldtown.
  • Find the crystal of the spirits – West of Catacomb.
  • Defend the moon fragment – East of Catacomb.
  • Boss of dark organization – West of Catacomb.

Package 4

  • Curse of the werewolf – South of Curseland.
  • Yeti’s treasure – Northwest of Curseland.
  • Kill skeleton king – Northeast of Curseland.
  • Impact of broken seal – West of Curseland.
  • Lullaby of the spirits – North of Curseland.
  • Anger of the spirits – East of Curseland.
  • Sleeping ancient spirit – Northwest of Curseland.
  • Dimension seal – Northeast of Curseland.
  • The ruins of hidden seal – Curseland.
  • Kill Minotauros king – East of Curseland.
  • Defend a stone of Anima – South of Curseland.
  • Clear remnants of Necrosis – North of Curseland.

Package 5

  • Result of failure in the evolution – Cruise mountain southern.
  • Laboratory of evil religious orders – Cruise mountain southern.
  • Experiment of those who sacrificed – Cruise mountain.
  • The chart of evolution – Cruise mountain western.
  • Camp of religious orders – Cruise trail.
  • Result of fast evolution – Passion plain.
  • Zealot and bomb – Passion plain southern.
  • Result of success in the evolution – Passion tunnel.
  • Soul of fallen god – Crinsia ruin.
Stone of life Dungeons (North)

Stone of life Dungeons (North)

Package 6

  • Kill mutant orcs – Passion plain southern.
  • Destroy status – Crinsia ruin northern.
  • Escape from corridor of otherworld – Crinsia ruin northern.
  • Remove a bomb in the air maze – Abydos northern.
  • Stop explosion – King’s garden.
  • Reinvasion of the otherworld – King’s garden western.

Package 7

  • Specimens in abandoned villa hall – Abydos northern.
  • Forgotten treasure in warehouse – King’s garden.
  • Kill specimens in arsenal – King’s garden eastern.
  • Revived magical monsters in the library – King’s garden eastern.
  • Battle specimens EX-108 – King’s garden western.
  • Sweep the camp of specimen – King’s garden northern.
  • Resurrected experiment executor – King’s garden northern.
  • Murlock’s successor – King’s villa.
  • Kill magical specimens Ex-88 – King’s garden northern.
  • Cursed specimens – Abydos.

Package 8

(This Room is accessible via the shiny portal in each town)

  • Dungeon of life rune – Room of ancient treasure.
  • Dungeon of spirit rune – Room of ancient treasure.
  • Dungeon of gold rune – Room of ancient treasure.
  • Dungeon of heroes – Room of ancient treasure.
  • Ancient Dungeon – Room of ancient treasure.
  • Dungeon of hunters – Room of ancient treasure.
  • Dungeon of sages – Room of ancient treasure.

Package 9

  • Ancient magical sword in mine – Western of Ruina cave.
  • Evil’s attack – Western of Ruina cave.
  • Resurrected Evil’s nest – Central of Ruina cave.
  • Piece of life – Northern of Ruina cave.
  • Piece of mind – Southern of Ruina cave.
  • Sealed ancient stone – Northern of Ruina cave.
  • Ancient golems – Southern of Ruina cave.
  • Discover base of ruins – Eastern of Ruina cave.
  • Mad grave robbers – Eastern of Ruina cave.
  • Broken gap of other world – Abyss of Ruina cave.
  • Collapsed refuge – Central of Ruina cave.
  • Repair gap of dimension – Abyss of Ruina cave.